Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 11-16-2022


Smartphone use is associated with things like immersion into false realities, worsened mental health, and even addictive tendencies, and reducing usage can produce both negative outcomes like fear of missing out and separation anxiety, as well as positive outcomes like attainment of study goals and reflective states (defined as states wherein behavior relies on forethought and a deliberate examination of options). However, there is a gap in what is known about expectations in anticipation of smartphone use reduction, and the prevalence of quantitative approaches has meant that there is a lack of richer, participant-driven data about device-free experiences. Using qualitative coding of student reflections, the project addresses the question: What do students expect, and what outcomes do they experience, from device-free periods of time? Based on existing literature, we expected themes of negative expectations paired with generally positive outcomes, including presence (defined as being present in the real world rather than engrossed or absorbed by media), focus, and psychological well-being.

Included in

Psychology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.