Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Michael Lund, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Martha E. Cook, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Kathleen T. Flanagan, Ph.D.


In Victorian fiction, the relationships between male characters and the animals with which they come in contact with are interesting. The way Victorian male characters are shown to treat animals revels something about the nature of the men themselves. Therefore, it is important to examine the concept of masculinity at the time. The gender stereotypes that prevailed in Victorian England had a tremendous impact on the portrayal of men and women in the novels written at that time. Male writers, the dominant sex, chose to preserve ideals already present. Female writers did the opposite. The Victorian novelists examined were influenced by the expectations of an audience they must satisfy in order to be successful. Some of the authors felt compelled to use their literary creations as a means through which to deter their society from errors in its gender perceptions. The results of these efforts is an interesting variety of male characters whom either fit or rebel against the gender stereotypes of masculinity perpetuated by nineteenth-century society.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.